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Title: Беженцы - глобальная проблема XXI века
Other Titles: Refugees - the Global Problem of the XXI Century (Yuri Morgun)
Authors: Моргун, Юрий Федорович
Keywords: ЭБ БГУ::ОБЩЕСТВЕННЫЕ НАУКИ::Комплексные проблемы общественных наук
Issue Date: 2001
Publisher: Международное общественное объединение по изучению ООН и информационно-образовательным программам
Citation: Белорусский журнал международного права и международных отношений. — 2001. — № 2
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the World Refugee Day established for the first time to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the Republic of Belarus joining the Convention in May 2000. The article briefly elucidates and analyzes one of the global problems facing mankind in the XXI century — the problem of refugees. A brief account of main episodes on the history of refugees in presented from ancient times till our days. The international community is shown to realize after World War II the necessity of adoption of concerted effort directed at the solution of the refugee problem and to take such measures. It was the League of Nations that lay down the foundation of "the edifice" of international protection for refugees. The famous Norwegian explorer of the Pole Fridtjof Nansen was appointed by the League to be its first High Commissioner on Refugees. Displaying marvels of organisation and humanity, Nansen managed to achieve outstanding success in international protection of refugees under incredibly hard conditions. His work was crowned by the Nobel Peace Prize. Nansen exerted exceptional influence on subsequent international efforts in protecting refugees' interests. After Nansen's death in 1930 his work was carried on by Nansen International Office. The League of Nations adopted and confirmed by a number of international agreements a model for international actions to protect refugees. After World War II international efforts to protect refugees were implemented through the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency (UNRRA, 1943—1947) and the International Refugee Organisation (IRO, 1947—1952). By the early 50s the international community was beginning to realize that the refugee problem was not merely a temporary post-war issue. "The Cold War", ever new crises and wars engendered new flows of refugees. The necessity of establishing a strong, permanent, all-purpose International Agency on refugees was becoming increasingly evident. After lengthy and sharp consultations and discussions in December 1949 the UN General Assembly adopted the resolution to establish the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The article gives a brief presentation of international legal foundations of the UNHCR's activity — the Statute, the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees and throws light on the genuinely titanic humanitarian ctivity of the UNHCR over five decades of refugee work. During this time it has given real help to over 50 million refugees and other people in refugee-like situations. The UNHCR staff members actively operated practically in all crisis areas of the planet in the most dangerous situations and during the most acute crises connected with mass displacement of refugees. Many of them died, some were lost without trace while performing their duty. The UNHCR was twice honored with the Nobel Peace Prize for its long distinguished and successful service in protection of some of the most deprived people on earth — refugees. The article concludes with the quotation of the words of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees Mr. Ruud Lubbers: "Perhaps the biggest challenge of all is to get serious about tackling the root causes of refugee crises and finding durable solutions for them... But if we want to reduce the number of refugees worldwide, we have to address the problems that drive them into exile in the first place".
Description: Раздел - "Международные отношения"
URI: http://elib.bsu.by/handle/123456789/29326
Appears in Collections:Белорусский журнал международного права и международных отношений. — 2001. — № 2

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