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|Title:||Cytosolic abscisic acid activates guard cell anion channels without preceding Ca2+ signals|
Konrad, Kai R.
Roelfsema, M. Rob G.
|Keywords:||ЭБ БГУ::ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫЕ И ТОЧНЫЕ НАУКИ::Биология|
|Abstract:||The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) reports on the water status of the plant and induces stomatal closure. Guard cell anion channels play a central role in this response, because they mediate anion efflux, and in turn, cause a depolarization-induced K+ release. We recorded early steps in ABA signaling, introducing multibarreled microelectrodes in guard cells of intact plants. Upon external ABA treatment, anion channels transiently activated after a lag phase of ≈2 min. As expected for a cytosolic ABA receptor, iontophoretic ABA loading into the cytoplasm initiated a rise in anion current without delay. These ABA responses could be elicited repetitively at resting and at largely depolarized potentials (e.g., 0 mV), ruling out signal transduction by means of hyperpolarization-activated calcium channels. Likewise, ABA stimulation did not induce a rise in the cytosolic free-calcium concentration. However, the presence of ≈100 nM background Ca2+ was required for anion channel function, because the action of ABA on anion channels was repressed after loading of the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetate. The chain of events appears very direct, because none of the tested putative ABA-signaling intermediates (inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate, inositol hexakisphosphate, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and cyclic ADP-ribose), could mimic ABA as anion channel activator. In patch-clamp experiments, cytosolic ABA also evoked anion current transients carried by R- and S-type anion channels. The response was dose-dependent with half-maximum activation at 2.6 μM ABA. Our studies point to an ABA pathway initiated by ABA binding to a cytosolic receptor that within seconds activates anion channels, and in turn, leads to depolarization of the plasma membrane.|
|Appears in Collections:||Статьи биологического факультета|
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